Network Routers Explained

Network Routers Explained

A router is a networking device that routes or passes your internet connection to all of the user’s end devices in your home or business. It directs it to your computers, mobile phones, tablets, etc. so that those devices can access the Internet.

A router is basically like a computer. It has the general components of what PCs have such as processor, memory, storage space like a hard drive or flash drive, network interface card, etc. A router has more than one network interface card in them. Almost all routers will have at least two network interface cards, if not more.

There are different types of routers. There are routers that are used in businesses and larger organisations, and there are smaller routers that are used in homes and smaller businesses.

A router often acts as a default gateway for the computers which are known as hosts in a LAN. So, if one host wants to communicate with other hosts on a different network, it will send the traffic to the router. The router will then use the routing table, which is a data table stored in the router with lists of network destinations, and processes where the data should be forwarded to. The process will keep on repeating when necessary until it reaches the intended destination.

Routers use Network Address Translation (NAT). Usually, your internet service providers offer a single IP address or charge fees for large amounts of publicly routable addresses. With Internet connectivity through a router with NAT, a router can use a single public IP address and available networking ports to share the connection. Connecting a large organisation’s computers would not be possible without NAT functionalities.

However, a router can also support multiple networks where you can assign specific instructions to ensure the security and privacy of your main network. Certain routers have a guest network to separate from the normal network. By utilising the AC class router, you can have two separate networks on each of those: One to be used in the 2.4 GHz bands and the other one in the 5 GHz bands, each with its own SSID and protocol.

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